Eyesight is pretty much a tie. We can see more colors, but like all good hunting animals, they see better in the dark and can detect motion at great distances.
Their hearing is keener than human hearing, but much depends on breed, genetics and age.
Generally dogs are able to hear higher frequencies than humans, like a dog whistle which emits sound in the ultrasonic range. Engines and household appliances such as vacuum cleaners are far more frightening or annoying to dogs than to us because of their ability to hear frequencies we can’t.
I'm always puzzled at why some of the dogs in our neighborhood (not mine) howl at ambulance sirens. If it hurts their ears, as some suggest, why would they add to the decibel level and increase their pain?
A better explanation is that the siren sounds like howling and they want to join in. "Hey, I'm here and I'm bored and lonely."
Pointy ear dogs, such as Chihuahuas, Huskies, and German Shepherds carry little antennae around on their heads. Using 18 or more different muscles they can move their ears and cock their heads toward a sound to get the best reception and figure out where the sound is coming from.
(Chihuahuas seem to hear everything in their zip codes and are most eager to let everyone know.)
With floppy eared dogs bred for hunting and tracking, e.g. Poodles, Beagles, and Bassett hounds, the floppy ears muffle the sounds somewhat so the dog isn’t distracted from the job at hand by extraneous noises.
We’re all probably amazed at what our dogs can or seem to be able to hear.
My dogs, and maybe yours, can hear a car drive into the driveway and know whether it contains a friend or a stranger. They can hear a package of treats being opened from the other end of the house.
It may be that different engines have frequencies that only dogs can hear and it may be that their incredible sense of smell is also involved in what they seem to be hearing.
Since dogs age faster than humans, depending on genetics a dog of 6-8-years-old may begin to lose hearing. However, this is also the age when a dog has developed the sophistication and experience to know what to tune out.
Through the years, the early recall training which once meant treats and praise may have come to mean stop chasing the squirrel, bathtime, medicine, or some other mundane activity that is of no interest to the dog. The older dog may develop selective hearing, something most humans develop at an early age.
An older dog may not respond to his name, but often they can hear cheese hit vinyl from several rooms away.